Virology is a sub field of Microbiology which deals with the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, physiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, clinical aspects, ecology and evolution of Viruses. Not only in humans have these viruses also caused serious diseases in plants and livestock. Viruses are distinct among microorganisms and extremely dependent on the host cell. Virus must grow within a host cell, and it must be viewed together with its host in any case of host defences, epidemiology and pathogenesis. The degree of effect of a disease depends on the degree of the virulence of a virus.
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Microbiology deals with the microorganisms which are not visible with our naked eye such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae and prions. These are simply known as 'microbes'. These microbes play key roles in our daily life such as in climate change, nutrient cycling, bio deterioration, nutrient cycling, biotechnology, food spoilage, and the cause and control of disease.
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The Novel Coronavirus disease is a recently emerging infectious disease. In humans, coronavirus cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal effects. In older people, and those with underlying medical problems like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic respiratory disease are more prone to serious illness. The Coronavirus spreads primarily through discharge from the nose or through droplets of saliva when an infected person sneezes or coughs. So it’s very important to practice respiratory etiquette. As of now there is no specific treatment and medication for novel coronavirus.
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Session-04: Clinical and Molecular Virology
Clinical virology involves the study of viruses and virus-like agents that includes their classification, genetics and disease-producing properties. Clinical virology is very useful to know the epidemiology and spreading of viral diseases. By knowing the modes of transmission, treatment strategies can be invented. Whereas molecular virology deals with the viruses on a cellular and molecular level because viruses are sub microscopic parasites that replicate within the host cells.
Fig: Clinical and Molecular Virology
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Session-05: Viral Epidemiology
Viral epidemiology is the study of occurrence and spread of viruses in population over time. The host, virus and specific environment for the growth are monitored to determine the dynamics of viral infections. The analysis influences the epidemiology of recently appeared viruses and infectious diseases in humans and other animals. Common diseases are Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Canine haemorrhagic disease and Respiratory syndrome in animals like horses.
Fig: Viral Epidemiology
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Session-06: Viral Immunology
Viral immunology is the study of viral infections and their immune responses towards viral infections which can cause harmful effect on the functions of the cells. It also includes the topics such as role of cellular and humoral immunity in viral infections, factors responsible for the perseverance and reoccurrence of viral infections in the presence of immunity and concepts in the development of vaccines.
Fig: Viral Immunology
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Session-07: Viral Oncology
Viral oncology is a branch of oncology which deals with the treatment of human tumours and cancer with virus particles. Roughly 20% of all cancers results from chronic infections in worldwide. Up to 15% of human diseases are described by a viral histology with higher frequency in the developing countries. Recently, the infectious nature of specific tumours has important implications in their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Now there are many kinds of research and experiments going in viral oncogenesis for treatment of malignancy.
Fig: Viral Oncology
Recommended Virology Conferences: Virology Congress 2021 | Coronavirus Awareness Meetings | Virology Webinar 2021 | Virology Conferences | Clinical Virology Meet | Virology and Microbiology Summit | Virology Online Congress
Session-08: STD& HIV/AIDS and Other Emerging Viral Diseases
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lent virus that causes HIV infection and in latent stage it develops to AIDS. Diagnosis is done by testing the human blood or saliva for antibodies to the virus. HIV, AIDS, clinical trials are research studies are performed in order to have a better approach, distinguish and treat HIV, AIDS. Clinical trials are the chief way to examine if new medical approaches to HIV, AIDS are safe and effective in people.
Fig: STD, HIV/AIDS and other emerging viral diseases
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Session-09: Neurologic Viral Diseases
Neurologic viral diseases are one of the most important fields that denote the connection of virology, clinical neuroscience, molecular biology and immunology. The main aim of this field is to investigate the viruses which can damage the nervous system. There is also an additional study of this division, for gene therapy, to eliminate detrimental populations of neural cells and the use of some viruses to trace neuroanatomical pathways.
Fig: Neurologic Viral Diseases
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Session-10: Pediatric Viral Infectious Diseases
Infections caused by viruses are common during childhood and adolescence. These infections have varied arrangements. Many infections may have particular clinical presentations that are specific to the infecting virus but present differently, based on the immunocompetence and age of the patient. In some children they are directly affected early in their lives and maternal disease results in an in utero infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, or parvovirus B19). In some other cases viruses may infect children in a predictable pattern as they grow older (rhinovirus or influenza virus).
Fig: Pediatric Viral Infectious Diseases
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Session-11: Respiratory Viral Diseases
One of the most common viral infections that are out-breaking includes respiratory tract infections. The respiratory tract infections include the infection of throat, sinuses, lungs or airways. The respiratory tract infections (RTI) are generally classified into two subdivisions as Upper Respiratory tract infections (URTI) and Lower Respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The common viruses that are associated with respiratory disorders are coronavirus, adenovirus, Para influenza virus, Coxsackie virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus.
Fig: Respiratory Viral Diseases
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Session-12: Hepatic Viral Diseases
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Many sicknesses and conditions can cause inflammation of the liver like alcohol, drugs, chemicals, and autoimmune diseases. Viruses such as mononucleosis and the cytomegalovirus can inflame the liver. However most of the viruses do not attack the liver primarily; the liver is just one of other several organs that the viruses affect. There are many types of hepatitis viruses and they are named as types A, B, C, D, E, F (not confirmed), and G. The most commonly seen hepatitis viruses are types A, B, and C. These hepatitis viruses often used in a short form such as HAV, HBV, HCV to represent hepatitis viruses A, B, and C, respectively.
Fig: Hepatic Viral Diseases
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Session-13: Gastrointestinal Viral Diseases
Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that includes the symptoms nausea or vomiting, fever sometimes, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps. The most common way to spread viral gastroenteritis or stomach flu is through contact with an infected person or by consuming contaminated food or water. If you're healthy, you'll likely recover without any complications. But for infants, older people and people with impaired or unbalanced immune systems, this viral gastroenteritis/stomach flu can be deadly. There's no particular effective therapy for viral gastroenteritis, so prevention is key. Along with avoiding contaminated food and water, thorough and frequent hand-washings are your best defence.
Fig: Gastrointestinal Viral Diseases
Recommended Virology Conferences: Virology and Microbiology Webinars | Virology Summit 2021 | Virology Online Meet | Virology Congress | Virology Online Conferences | Scientific Webinar on Virology | Virology Live Event 2021
Session-14: Anti-Retroviral Therapy
Antiretroviral therapy is an effective HIV treatment that uses a combination of two or more drugs. It does not cure the disease completely, but it can reduce the viral load to undetectable levels. This means the virus is not transmittable through sexual activity and a person’s immune system can recover. Antiretroviral therapy has a binary effect on the body. It increases the number of immune cells along with decreasing the number of virus cells present in the body.
Fig: Anti-Retroviral Therapy
Recommended Virology Conferences: Virology Webinar 2021 | Virology and Microbiology Meetings | Virology Summit | Coronavirus Awareness Conferences | Virology Online Meet | Virology and Medical Microbiology Summit
Session-15: Human Virology and Infectious Diseases
Most of the infectious diseases arise when microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites get contact with our bodies and make us sick. These sicknesses can spread from one person to another person. Coronavirus and Hepatitis are the common infectious diseases. Coronavirus cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal effects. In older people, and those with underlying medical problems like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic respiratory disease are more prone to serious illness. Hepatitis is defined by the tenderness of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis A is a severe irresistible infection of the liver instigated by the hepatitis A virus. HCV is contagious mostly by blood-to-blood contact linked with the intravenous drug. The IHV targets on the treatment of HIV/AIDS and many other chronic viral diseases such as Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, and the Human Papilloma Virus Infection.